Currently there are no proven treatments that can halt cartilage damage or repair damaged cartilage. The focus for osteoarthritis treatment is on reduction of pain, stiffness and swelling as well as patient education that can improve quality of life.  Read more
There are currently no approved drug treatments for sarcopenia. Researchers face limitations in developing studies due to the lack of standardized primary outcomes (this means, because it is a new field, protocols and outcomes for drug-related sarcopenia studies are difficult to determine)1. Read more
Bisphosphonates are the most common drug therapy for osteoporotic fracture prevention, prescribed to millions of people around the world. Concern among doctors and patients has arisen following recent media reports that cite a possible association between unusual and unexpected (atypical) fractures of the upper thigh bone and bisphosphonate use. Read more
Denosumab prevents the binding of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK) on the cells of the osteoclastic lineage. RANKL binds to RANK and stimulates osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival. Read more
1. What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone density and quality are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fractures greatly increases. Bone loss occurs "silently" and progressively – often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs. For these reasons, osteoporosis is often referred to as the "silent epidemic". Read more about osteoporosis. Read more
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive surgical procedures which aim to relieve symptoms associated with vertebral compression fractures. Read more
Salmon calcitonin is commercially available as an injectable formulation and as a nasal spray. This 32-amino-acid peptide secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid inhibits activity of osteoclasts, slows bone resorption, but induces only a mild increase in bone mineral density BMD [1]. Nasal salmon calcitonin decreased the incidence of vertebral fractures by 33 % in older osteoporotic women, most of... Read more
Strontium ranelate (2 g daily) slightly inhibits bone resorption, slightly stimulates bone formation and progressively dose-dependently increases BMD [1,2]. It decreases the incidence of vertebral fractures by about 40 % [1]. During long-term treatment (4 years), strontium ranelate decreased the vertebral fracture incidence by 33 % [3]. Read more
Recombinant 1-34 fragment of human parathyroid hormone [rhPTH(1-34), teriparatide] and recombinant human intact parathyroid hormone [PTH(1-84)] are effective stimulators of bone formation. They stimulate bone remodeling at the bone remodeling unit and bone modeling on quiescent bone surfaces. They induce a prompt increase in bone formation followed by a slower increase in bone resorption. Read more
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) are synthetic molecules. They have the ability to bind to oestrogen receptors throughout the body and act as estrogen agonists or antagonists depending upon the target organ. The concept of SERM is based on the observation that  tamoxifen, used as an anti-estrogen in the treatment of breast cancer, acts as an estrogen agonist on bone in postmenopausal... Read more


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